Section 3 Personnel
Policy 3-14 BLOODBORNE DISEASES
DISTRIBUTION: All Departments
Except Police & Fire
SUBJECT: GENERAL EMPLOYEE EXPOSURE CONTROL PLAN FOR
PURPOSE: To provide guidance and procedures to minimize exposure of employees
borne diseases, such as the HIV (AIDS) virus and the HBV (Hepatitis B) virus.
BACKGROUND: The OSHA Blood Borne Pathogens Standard, Section 1910.1030,
Part 1910, was enacted to provide protection mainly for health care and emergency responder
personnel. Police and Fire personnel have developed exposure control plans for their individual
departments. However, potential exposure to blood and other body fluids may not be limited to
Fire and Police emergency response personnel. Exposure may result from first-aid treatment or
assistance provided to co-workers or other individuals who have been injured; or from a variety
of other sources.
A. Employees are to assume that all blood and other body fluids are contaminated
including the blood of fellow employees, and take precautions to protect themselves accordingly.
B. Employees are to avoid, to the maximum extent possible, any situation that
may result in
contact with blood or other body fluids.
C. Although the primary purpose of this policy is to prevent employees from contracting
HIV, HBV, HCV viruses, following the guidelines will prevent the transmission of other diseases
"Blood" means human blood, human blood components, and products made from human blood.
"Contaminated" means the presence or the reasonably anticipated presence
of blood or other
potentially infectious materials on an item or surface.
"Contaminated Blood" means blood containing the Hepatitis B (HBV),
Hepatitis C (HCV) or
the AIDS (HIV) virus.
"Decontamination" means the use of physical or chemical means to remove,
destroy blood borne pathogens on a surface or item to the point where they are no longer capable
of transmitting infectious particles and the surface or item is rendered safe for handling, use, or
"Exposure Incident" means an incident where an employee, while performing
experiences direct contact with blood or other potentially infectious body fluids in the eyes, nose,
or mouth; or on skin which is not intact due to cuts, rashes, abrasions, etc.; or from penetration of
the skin by a contaminated object.
"Formal Course" means a training session of no less than one hour
conducted by a person
knowledgeable of the OSHA Blood Borne Pathogens Standard and this administrative policy
utilizing an approved or standardized lesson plan, training videos, and/or other appropriate
3. Modes of Transmission - HIV, HCV, and HBV Viruses
The Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and AIDS viruses are transmitted in a similar manner. All are
transmitted through sexual contact or contact with the blood or certain other infectious materials
from an individual infected with the virus. These materials include body fluids such as semen,
vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, amniotic fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial
fluid, peritoneal fluid, and any body fluid that is visibly contaminated with blood, and any
unfixed organ or tissue from a human (living or dead). Saliva, vomit, urine and feces will not
transmit these viruses unless contaminated with blood or other potentially infectious body fluids.
Blood is the single most important source of HIV, HBV, and HCV in the workplace setting. The
contaminated blood must have a route of entry into the body for the virus to be transmitted.
Possible routes of entry include eyes, mouth, nose and skin. Contaminated blood on the surface
of the skin may enter the body through open wounds, or through cracked , chapped or abraded
skin. Sharp objects contaminated with blood may introduce the disease into the body by
puncturing the skin.
4. Personal Protective Equipment - General Rules
A. Disposable gloves should be used wherever blood or
blood contaminated items is present
to prevent direct contact with the hands.
B. Surgical masks, eye wear and appropriate protective
clothing are recommended if there is
massive bleeding, large amounts of blood present, or there is a chance of blood being spurted or
splashed. Masks and eyewear, such as safety glasses, should be worn together or a full-face
shield used instead. Protective clothing includes aprons, shoe covers, and full body suits.
C. Resuscitation equipment: CPR masks with one-way
valves or other resuscitation devices
that do not require direct contact with the mouth of the victim are to be used whenever CPR is to
5. Disinfecting, Decontamination and Disposal
A. Washing of hands and other skin surfaces: Hands
and other skins surfaces shall be
washed immediately and thoroughly if contaminated with blood or other potentially infectious
body fluids. Even if gloves are worn, the hands should be washed. Wash skin surfaces with
warm water and soap. When hand-washing facilities are not available, disposable antiseptic
towelettes or alcohol wipes, which should be available in first-aid kits, are to be used.
B. Cleaning and decontaminating spills of blood: While
wearing gloves, the employee
cleaning up blood will first remove visible materials with disposable towels or other appropriate
means. If splashing is anticipated, protective eyewear and protective clothing should be worn.
Should employees need assistance in decontamination, the Fire Department is to be contacted for
assistance. After visible materials are removed, the area should be decontaminated using an
EPA-approved germicide or a one to ten solution of household bleach to water.
C. Plastic bags properly color-coded and/or labeled for
biological waste will be available in
first-aid kits. All contaminated items, including disposable cleaning supplies and equipment,
will be placed in one or more of these bags and disposed of properly.
D. Decontamination of Surfaces: Floors, counters,
vehicles, and other areas that have
potential surface contamination of blood or other body fluid may be decontaminated by cleaning
with a bleach solution (one unit of bleach to ten units of water) or with other chemicals designed
to destroy blood borne pathogens.
E. Decontamination and laundering of clothing: Clothing
soaked with blood or other body
fluids should be removed as soon as possible to prevent the fluids from contacting the skin or, at
least, to minimize the time of contact with the skin. Protective clothing or other work clothing
contaminated with blood or other body fluids should be placed and transported in bags or
containers that prevent leakage. Personnel involved in the bagging, transport, and laundering
contaminated clothing should wear gloves. Protective clothing and work uniforms should be
washed and dried according to the manufacturer's recommendations or instructions. Clothing
that is taken home for washing should be laundered separately and clothing taken to cleaners
should be identified as being contaminated with potentially infectious waste. Boots and leather
goods may be brushed with soap and hot water to remove contamination.
F. Infectious Waste Disposal: Infectious waste
may be disposed of at the landfill or
incinerated at an appropriate facility. Small amounts of contaminated waste may be disposed of
with the regular trash at the landfill. However, care must be taken to ensure no one is exposed
the waste and the waste must be properly packaged and labeled. Infectious waste incinerators are
operated by the local hospitals and permission would have to be obtained in order to use these
Contact the Safety and Risk Officer if assistance is needed in disposing of
Where possible, waste should be decontaminated with bleach or other agents manufactured
specifically for this purpose prior to disposal.
6. Rules for Performing First-Aid
Only employees properly trained and certified to perform CPR and first aid will,
circumstances, be allowed to provide treatment for injured employees or other persons. Only in
potentially life-threatening situations should an untrained employee without proper personal
protective equipment attempt to perform first aid where exposure to blood or other potentially
infectious body fluids is likely.
All first aid stations and first-aid kits will be stocked with protective equipment
such as eyewear, masks, and gloves to protect the employee performing first aid from contact
with blood and other body fluids. They will also contain items for decontamination and disposal
of contaminated materials, such as antiseptic towelettes, decontamination chemicals, and plastic
bags. CPR masks with one-way valves will be available for use in performing cardio-pulmonary
7. General employees with Potential Exposures and Nature
of Exposures: General
employees do not routinely work with blood or other body fluids known or suspected to be
contaminated with blood borne pathogens. However, some employees may be inadvertently
exposed to such fluids. The following detail employee groups who may be so exposed and the
likely nature of such exposures:
A. Wastewater Collection/Wastewater Maintenance employees
are exposed to raw sewage
that may contain condoms, tampons, diapers, syringes, and other potentially contaminated items,
as well as body fluids disposed of through the sanitary sewer system. Exposures may occur
while rodding or flushing clogged sewer mains, cleaning manholes, or while maintaining or
repairing lines or manholes.
B. Wastewater Treatment Plant employees are also exposed
to raw sewage which is
collected from the sanitary sewer system for processing at the plant. Exposures may occur
during sludge press operations; while samplings; during cleaning of facilities and equipment;
during repair and maintenance activities on pumps, pipes, and other processing equipment;
during laboratory analysis of samples; etc.
C. Sewer Construction employees are exposed to raw sewage
while replacing sewer mains.
They are exposed when they remove and replace service line connections, during "pipe bursting"
(slip-lining) operations, while removing old sewer lines or working in the proximity of them, etc.
D. Meter Readers may be exposed to raw sewage, which
is frequently found in water meter
boxes, during repair, removal and replacement of meters.
E. Solid Waste Collection and Solid Waste Disposal personnel
may be exposed to diapers,
sanitary napkins, tampons, condoms, syringes, used bandages, and other potentially contaminated
items picked up in residential or commercial waste.
F. Lakes, Park Maintenance, Athletic Maintenance, and
Cemetery personnel may be exposed
to contaminated items or debris left in trash containers or on grounds for which they are
responsible for maintaining. Personnel involved in servicing and cleaning public restroom
facilities may be exposed while doing so.
G. Senior or Recreation Center employees may be exposed
to blood or other body fluids
while assisting patrons who sustain injuries while at City facilities.
H. Employees certified to perform CPR and first aid may
be exposed to blood or other body
fluids while performing providing medical assistance to fellow employees or member of the
8. Exposure Control for Identified Employees:
A. Employees exposed to raw sewage must avoid getting
it in their eyes, mouths and noses,
and on skin that is broken due to cuts, abrasions, rashes, or chaffing. Gloves should always be
worn when working in sewage or with materials or equipment contaminated with raw sewage.
Leather gloves may be worn. However, if hands are to be submersed in sewage, leather gloves
lined with deposable latex, vinyl, nitrile, or polyethylene gloves or abrasion resistant rubber,
butyl, neoprene, or nitrile are to be used. Wear of long sleeve apparel is recommended to protect
skin. Goggles or full-face shields should be worn to protect the eyes.
If employees must work in standing sewage, impervious boots, hip boots, waders,
or full body
protection should be worn depending upon the depth of the liquid and the potential for splashing
or spurting. If hands must be submerged in the sewage, impervious gloves with long cuffs should
be worn. Full-face protection consisting of goggles and mask covering the nose and mouth
face shield is required.
All personal protective clothing and equipment are to be cleaned and decontaminated
immediately after the job is completed. Should sewage contact skin surfaces, employees should
wash it off as soon as possible.
B. Employees who handle solid waste either by servicing
containers or picking up debris in
parks or other public areas should wear leather or other puncture resistant work gloves to prevent
coming into direct contact with possible contaminated objects or surfaces. Safety glasses,
goggles or face shields should be worn to protect the eyes. Long sleeve apparel is recommended.
These precautions also apply to Equipment Maintenance employees who must enter the bodies of
sanitation vehicles to perform maintenance or make repairs. Solid Waste Disposal personnel are
to take similar precautions when they get out of equipment in areas where solid waste is on the
surface of the ground or while servicing parts of equipment that have been in contact with solid
waste. Should liquids confirmed or suspected to be blood or other potentially infectious body
fluids come into contact with the employees skins, protective equipment, or clothing, it must be
washed and disinfected immediately. If such liquid should get into the eyes, nose, or mouth or
on the broken skin of an employee, the supervisor is to be immediately notified and medical
evaluation of the exposure is to be completed. Medical treatment will also be obtained when an
employee receives a puncture wound from syringes or other potentially contaminated sharps.
Should containers or debris be contaminated with amounts of blood or other body
could result in splashing or other direct contact with the fluids if handled, employees are to call
supervisor to evaluate the possible exposure and determine if the work can safely be performed
or if a home-owner or proper authorities should be notified to correct an unsafe condition.
C. Employees who perform first aid and CPR must wear
vinyl or latex gloves to prevent
direct contact with body fluids. If CPR is performed, masks with one-way valves must be used.
If there is a possibility that blood or other body fluids will splash or spurt, surgical masks and
goggles or a full-face shield should be worn. Other protective clothing such as sleeves, aprons,
shoe covers may be needed depending upon the extent of possible exposure. The same
procedures apply for employees at recreation or senior centers when assisting injured patrons.
9. Preventative Hepatitis Vaccinations.
All general employees will be offered the series of Hepatitis B vaccinations
at no cost to them.
Acceptance of the vaccinations is voluntary on the part of each employee. Those choosing
to accept the vaccinations, will be required to sign a "declination statement" which will
on file with the employee's medical records in the Human Resources Department. The Safety and
Risk Officer will schedule employees who opt to receive the vaccinations. Employees who
initially decline the vaccinations may later decide to receive them. In such cases, they are to
contact the Safety and Risk Officer who will arrange for the vaccinations.
10. Medical Procedures for Employee Exposures Incidents
Any employee who comes into contact with potentially contaminated blood or other
potentially infectious body fluid in such a manner conducive to transmission of a disease, will be
referred immediately for medical evaluation by a licensed health care professional. At the time
of initial treatment, the employee will be given the first of the series of three hepatitis B
vaccinations and will be scheduled for the remaining two vaccinations unless the employee
declines to be vaccinated or has previously been vaccinated. The employee will be evaluated and
monitored by the health care professional as necessary to determine if any disease was
transmitted to the employee.
If possible, the person who is the source of the exposure should be asked to
submit to a blood
test to determine if his or her blood is contaminated with a virus. The source person must
provide signed, written consent before the test is performed that would allow release of the test
results to the exposed employee or employee's physician. A court order would be required if the
source person does not voluntarily consent to being tested.
Such rick exposures will be reported on the "Report of Injury" form
and medical expenses will
be paid under the City's Workers' Compensation Program.
11. Evaluation of Exposure Incidents
All incidents involving risk exposure of City employees will be investigated
and evaluated by
the Safety & Risk Officer and appropriate supervisory and management personnel to determine
changes in procedures which may be appropriate to eliminate future risk exposures of a similar
12. Potential Exposure Incidents
Employees are to report any situation that could result in exposure incidents
employees to their immediate supervisors. Employees should avoid such situations where an
exposure incident could result. No employee will be disciplined for refusal to work in a situation
where an exposure incident could reasonably result.
13. Medical Records
A. Medical records pertaining to exposure incidents or
potential exposure of City employees,
and records of Hepatitis B vaccinations will be maintained in the Human Resources Department
in individual files separate from the personnel files.
B. Medical records will be considered personal and confidential
and staff, supervisory and
management personnel may not have access to the files unless there is a valid necessity to do so,
and then, only upon the approval of the Human Resources Director or the written authorization
of the affected employee.
C. Each employee or the employee's designated representative
(with the employee's
expressed written consent) will have access to his or her individual records.
D. Records will be maintained throughout an individual's
employment with the City. After
employment has terminated, the records will be maintained for the period of time specified by
applicable state or federal law.
A. Only employees properly trained, and required to maintain
current certification in first aid
and CPR, will be designated to perform CPR and first aid.
B. All employees who are designated and certified to
perform first aid and CPR will be
trained on the contents of this Administrative Policy and the OSHA Blood Borne Pathogens
Standard; on the hazards, modes of transmission, and symptoms of the HIV, HBV, and HCV
viruses; and on the proper use of protective equipment, protective clothing, and decontamination
kits before being allowed to perform first-aid or CPR.
C. Employees identified in paragraph 7 of this policy
will be required to attend the first
available blood borne pathogens course after their dates of hire and annually thereafter. All
general employees will be scheduled to attend the first available blood borne pathogens training
course. Follow-up training for these employees will be scheduled at the discretion of the
employee and his/her supervisor. Training will include the contents of this policy; the hazards,
modes of transmission, and symptoms of the HIV, HBV and HCV viruses; use of personal
protective equipment and clothing, and on avoiding risk exposures.
REFERENCE: Code of Federal Regulations, Title 29, Part 1910.1030
RESCISSION: This policy supersedes Administrative Policy No. 3-14,
dated July 22, 1997,
and will remain in effect until rescinded.
DEPARTMENT: Human Resources
December 1, 2000